Toyota 1HD-T (4.2 L, 12 valves) turbo diesel engine

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The Toyota 1HD-T is a 4.20 l (4,164 cc, 254.1 cu-in) six cylinders, four-stroke cycle water-cooled turbocharged internal combustion diesel engine, manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation.

The 1HD-T engine has a cast-iron block with 94 mm (3.7 in) cylinder bores and a 100 mm (3.94 in) piston stroke. Compression ratio rating is 18.6:1. The motor has a cast iron cylinder head with a single overhead camshaft (SOHC) with two valves per cylinder; direct-injection design and Toyota CT26 turbocharger with a boost pressure of 0.48 bar.

The Toyota 1HD-T produced 167 PS (123 kW; 165 HP) at 3,600 rpm of maximum horsepower and 363 Nm (37.0 kg·m; 267.9 ft·lb) at 2,000 rpm of maximum torque.

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • 1 – 1nd generation engine
  • HD – Engine family
  • T – Turbocharged


Engine Specifications
Engine code 1HD-T
Layout Straight-6, vertical
Fuel type Diesel
Production 1988-1995
Displacement 4.2L, 4,164 cc (254.1 cu in)
Injection pump Mechanical
Power adder Toyota CT26
Horsepower net 165 PS (121 KW; 162 HP) at 3,600 rpm
167 PS (123 KW; 165 HP) at 3,600 rpm
Torque output 360 Nm (36.7 kg·m; 265.7 ft·lb) at 1,800 rpm
363 Nm (37.0 kg·m; 267.9 ft·lb) at 2,000 rpm
Firing order 1-4-2-6-3-5
Dimensions (L x H x W):


The cylinder block is made of cast iron. The crankshaft is supported by 7 bearings on the inside of the crankcase. The crankshaft is integrated with 12 balance weights. The crankshaft bearing cap is of ladder-frame construction and is incorporated into the crankcase. The top of the cylinders is closed off by the cylinder head and the lower end of the cylinders becomes the crankcase, in which the crankshaft is installed.

Pistons are made of highly temperature-resistant aluminum alloy. As the 1 HD-T engine is the direct injection type, a deep combustion chamber has been provided. The first compression ring is made of steel and the second compression ring is made of cast iron. The oil ring is made of steel.

The cylinder bore is 94 mm (3.7 in), piston stroke is 100 mm (3.94 in) and compression ratio rating is 18.6:1.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Compression ratio: 18.6:1
Cylinder bore: 94 mm (3.7 in)
Piston stroke: 100 mm (3.94 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil): 2 / 1
Number of main bearings: 7
Cylinder bore inner diameter: 94.000-94.030 mm (3.7001-3.7019 in)
Piston skirt diameter 93.845-94.855 mm (3.8947-3.8951 in)
Piston ring groove: First 0.050-0.095 mm (0.0020-0.0037 in)
Second 0.060-0.100 mm (0.0024-0.0039 in)
Oil 0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap: First 0.270-0.540 mm (0.0106-0.0212 in)
Second 0.400-0.620 mm (0.0157-0.0244 in)
Oil 0.200-0.520 mm (0.0079 – 0.0204 in)
Piston pin outer diameter 33.000-33.012 mm (1.2992-1.2997 in)
Piston pin bore diameter 33.008-33.020 mm (1.2995-1.3000 in)
Crankshaft main journal diameter: 66.994-67.004 mm (2.6375-2.6379 in)
Crankpin diameter: 58.994-59.004 mm (2.3225-2.3230 in)
Crankshaft center distance: 5


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